[i] European Food Information Council (EUFIC) (2012) Carbohydrates. Available at http://www.eufic.org/article/en/expid/basics-carbohydrates/
[ii] Corn Refiners Association, 2010 Annual Report. http://www.corn.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/CRAR2010.pdf
[iii] EFSA (2010). “Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for CHO and dietary fibres.” EFSA Journal 8(3): 1462 [77 pp].
[iv] Textbook knowledge, supported by Food insight which says “HFCS and table sugar contain the same number of calories – 4 calories per gram or 16 calories per teaspoon.” http://www.foodinsight.org/Content/6/HFCS_v7.pdf
[v] Acad Nutr Diet 2012: 112: 739-758.
[vi] Bray, G.A., S.J. Nielsen, and B.M. Popkin, Consumption of high-fructose syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004. 79: p. 537-543;
Moeller et al. 2009 the effects of high fructose syrup. J Am Coll Nutr 28(6) 619-26.
[vii] The Health Effects of High Fructose Syrup, Report 3 of The Council on Science and Public Health (A-08), The American Medical Association.
[ix] Soenen E, Westerp-Plantenga WS (2007) No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads. Am J Clin Nutr 86:1586-94.
Monsivais P, Perrigue MM, Drewnowki A (2007) Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference. AM J Clin Nutr 86: 116-23.
[x] L. Tappy and K-A Lé (2010) Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev 90: 23-46.
[xi] Akhavan T and Anderson GH. (2007). Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 86(5):1354-1363.
Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga WS (2007) No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-frucrose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 1586-94.
Monsivais P, Perrigue MM, Drewnowki A (2007) Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 116-23.
[xii] EFSA (2011). “Scientific opinion on the substitution of health claims related to fructose and reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses pursuant to article 13(1) of regulation (EC) No 1924/2006.” EFSA Journal 9(6): 2223 [15 pp].
Cozma, A. I., J. L. Sievenpiper, et al. (2012). “Effects of fructose on glycaemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.” Diabetes Care 35(7): 1611-1620.
Ha, V., J. L. Sievenpiper, et al. (2012). “Effects of fructose on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.” Hypertension 59(4): 787-795.
[xiii] Sievenpiper J L, de Souzan R J, Mirrahimi A, Me Y, Carleton A J, et al. (2012) Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials. Ann. Intern, Med. 1856: 291 – 304.
[xiv] V.J. van Buul, L. Tappy and F.J.P.H. Brouns, Nutrition Research Reviews, 2014, Misconceptions about fructose-containing sugars and their role in the obesity epidemic.
[xiv] Klurfeld D, Foreyt J, Angelopoulos T, Rippe J. “Lack of Evidence for High Fructose Corn Syrup as the Cause of the Obesity Epidemic.” (Accepted, International Journal of Obesity, advance online publication, doi:10.1038/ ijo.2012.157, 18 September 2012.);
Scientific Advisory Committee in Nutrition (2015) Carbohydrate and health. Available from: Here
[xv] WHO (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: Technical report 916